The Speaker’s Handbook: A Speech Addressing The Equipment In Lacrosse

I would arrange a speech addressing the equipment used in the game of lacrosse based on the four phases, including preparation, incubation, illumination and refinement. I would arrange the key points that relate to the argument of the speech, persuading the audience through the selected reasoning patterns.

The problem-solutions format is best suited for persuasive speech because they promote new policies or some specific courses of action.  Problem-solution format requires a clear and comprehensive presentation of the issue of concern in order to provide explanations regarding the solutions to this concern.   

Topical organization is the most frequently used organizational pattern because it requires subdivision of the topic to ensure that the audience has a good understanding of the main points of this topic. Using the key points of the topical organization of speech allows assessing them as parts of the whole. Topical organization is widely used in informational speeches and persuasive speeches, which are known as commonly used organizational patterns.

The following factors make the topical pattern both easy and difficult to use effectively: understanding the range and possible limitations of the subject, developing topical areas, and paying no attention to implications that these topical areas have “a specific logical relationship or a relationship in time and space” (Sprague et al., 2016, p. 136).

A speaker’s first minute influence my attention through the rest of the speech because the development of an effective introduction to the speech allows capturing the audience’s attention immediately. Due to motivation of the speaker presented in the first minute of the speech, the audience has an increased interest to listen the rest of the speech. Besides, logical orientation supports the audience’s listening through the rest of the speech.

For an informative speech to an audience that knows the speaker well, logical orientation is more important than psychological orientation because there is no need to create bonds with the audience. The audience knows the speaker and it is ready to listen to him.

The introduction should be limited to about 10 percent of the speech length. The introduction part of the speech should be clear and concise. If it is well-organized, it provides the audience with clear thoughts about the selected topic. The introduction should not be longer than other parts of the speech to avoid bored and indifferent audience.

The conclusion should entail the total speech time of one minute. It should be a strong conclusion, with logical and psychological closure. The audience should expect conclusion to be clear, well-planned and concise in order to pull together the key ideas of the speech.

The dangers associated with a weak conclusion include the lack of evidence, weak assumptions and lack of accuracy. A weak conclusion does not present the completed speech because of the lack of thorough summary of the key facts.

The conclusion of a persuasive appeal might differ from that of an informative or an invitational speech. It should be done effectively. Logical closure and psychological closure will allow the speaker to highlight the key ideas in order to maximize persuasion.


Sprague, J., Stuart, D., Bodary, D., (2016).The Speaker’s Handbook. Cengage Learning.

The terms offer and acceptance. (2016, May 17). Retrieved from

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016.

[Accessed: June 30, 2022] (2016) The terms offer and acceptance [Online].
Available at:

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]
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