“Bilingualism on Display” Article Review

1. Coupland discussed the “linguistic landscape.” In your own words, how would you define this concept?

The concept of “linguistic landscape” (LL) is a kind of a metaphorical concept that is extrapolated from a traditionally known concept of natural landscape. Explaining the concept of LL, it can be said that it means an amount of different languages, which exists on a certain territory, being presented in written form. The LL receives its display in road signs, public signs on some buildings, street names, etc. LL often includes various signs from both language and social levels that coexist in a given territory.

2. What does Coupland mean by “top-down” influences on language? What does Coupland use as an example that would demonstrate a language-ideological production that is not “top-down”?

In Coupland’s interpretation, “top-down” influences on language can be seen in LL texts, when institutional agencies give a special prescription to identify some signs in two languages (for instance, when the speech is going about road signs). Such an approach also allows to preserve alternative versions of the signs. Moreover, “top-down” signs always have official nature, while those signs, which are not “top-down” signs, are often produced by groups of people or some individuals by their own wish. These signs are considered to be non-official signs, and they helps people to distinguish some objects, naming them in understandable for them way.

3. In your own words, how would you describe Parallel Text Bilingualism as it pertains to Coupland’s reading?

It seems that parallel text bilingualism allows to use the same meaning of words in several variations, which will be understandable for much more people than the use of one or another singular variation of text. Such an approach helps to find some similar features between the same words in different languages, allowing people to be closer to the first unknown language.

Work Cited

Coupland, N. Bilingualism on display: The framing of Welsh and English in Welsh public spaces. Language in Society, vol. 41, pp. 1–27, 2012.  

The terms offer and acceptance. (2016, May 17). Retrieved from

[Accessed: October 27, 2021]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016.

[Accessed: October 27, 2021]

freeessays.club (2016) The terms offer and acceptance [Online].
Available at:

[Accessed: October 27, 2021]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: October 27, 2021]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: October 27, 2021]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: October 27, 2021]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: October 27, 2021]
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