Comparison & Contrast of European Imperialism in Africa & India

Imperialism is defined as a type of government that is focused on expanding its power, either through warfare or through political influence on other countries to accept its rule and authority. European imperialism is characterized by colonial expansion of the powers of European countries, such as Great Britain, France, Italy, Germany and other European states. The people of Africa and India did not supported the dominance of European nations. As a result, they were involved in continuous fighting against Europeans to gain their independence. European imperialism on the African continent differed from that in India in several ways, including differences in the spread of power, the motives for imperialism and the consequences of expanded European influence on the African continent and in India.

To start with, European imperialism on the African continent differed from that in India in the spread of power. In Africa, the power was spread among several European countries. In India, imperialism was dominated by Great Britain, the only European state. These differences played an important role in the strategies used by European states to gain control over territories ( Mackenzie, 2005).

Moreover, the motives for imperialism in Africa differed from those in India. On the African continent, Europeans were interested in searching for natural resources and growth of slavery. Natural resources like coal, tin, and iron were used to produce goods in their factories. In India, Great Britain was focused on strengthening its superiority through changing cultural traditions of people in India and developing reforms to create a civilized British Indian society (Mackenzie, 2005).

Besides, European imperialism on the African continent and in India differed in terms of the consequences of expanded European influence in these territories. The British rule in India led to close relationship between identity formation and nationalism. According to primary sources, “it was not only the wisdom and energy of the councils, but also the intelligence, and vigour and enterprise of the British character that constituted a solid foundation of strength whose effect in India had been heightened by imagination” (Sen, 2016, p. xxiv). On the African continent, European imperialism led to impoverishing of African people. The imperial expansion of Western European nations to Africa was based on oppression and discrimination. Africans fought against economic consequences of colonial rule, while Europeans recruited African soldiers to control political situation (Shillington, 2013).

Actually, there are several factors that cause the above mentioned differences to occur, including political, social and cultural factors. The British rule in India lasted for over 200 years. In Africa, the European rule lasted  less time because Germany’s defeat in World War I led to loss of  colonies. According to historians, European imperialism did not begin in the 19th century because from the 16th to the early 19th century, European nations were seeking trade routes with the Far East and explored the New World. Hence, establishment of settlements in Africa and India were guided by previous spread of power (Mackenzie, 2005; Sen, 2016). In general, there are certain differences between these two subjects, namely European imperialism on the African continent and India, because of different approaches used by Europeans in establishing their rule.

Thus, it is necessary to conclude that European imperialism on the African continent differed from that in India. These differences include the differences in the spread of power, the motives for imperialism and the consequences of expanded European influence on the African continent and in India. The fact that Europeans dominated Africa and India by enforcing their cultural beliefs and political, economic and social systems upon weaker nations means that people in African and India were oppressed. In both territories, European imperialism led to wars and violence. However, Africa and India provided different responses to reforms initiated by imperialism.

References

Mackenzie, J. (2005). The Partition of Africa: And European Imperialism 1880-1900. Routledge.

Sen, S. (2016). A Distant Sovereignty: National Imperialism and the Origins of British India. Routledge.

Shillington, K. (2013). Encyclopedia of African History. Routledge.

The terms offer and acceptance. (2016, May 17). Retrieved from

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"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016.

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freeessays.club (2016) The terms offer and acceptance [Online].
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"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]
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