Definitions from the Topic Culture & Society


Identity stands for self construction. It belongs to ethnic groups. Greek identity creates symbolic boundaries between the Greeks and other ethnic groups due to their unique culture, rituals and language. Historically, Greek identity was static and homogeneous; therefore, the Greeks have the sense of otherness, which allows them divide the world into different groups.

History and Memory

History and memory are two interrelated concepts that mean reconsideration of the past events with the goal of providing conscious critical thinking (Bennett et al. 234).  In Greek culture, history and memory are critical because historical memory helps to keep the established traditions, strengthen values toward Ancient Greece and foster cultural influence on further generations.

Heritage; Cultural Property

Heritage is defined as something valuable people inherit from the past generations with the goal of preservation for future generations (Bennett et al. 228).  In Greece, there are many historical monuments that are under  conservation, including ancient monuments, which stand for the connection between the past and the present. In Greek culture, cultural property means the inalienable cultural patrimony of the Greek nation.

Search for Continuities

Search for continuities means taking into consideration the aspects of human interaction that involves different stages of development. In Greece, search for continuity is linked to the search for identity and meaning.

Tradition: genuine or spurious? Inventing Traditions; Family inheritance; National

Traditions can be genuine or original and spurious or false. Traditions can be defined as distinctive patterns of human behaviour that  are based on the established norms, values and beliefs. Inventing traditions means developing new forms of behaviour and new sets of beliefs  that will be passed from generation to generation. Family inheritance means involvement of all family members in the process of passing something of value, such as wisdom, property or money, from older generation to younger generation. In Greece, due attention is paid to national traditions which make it possible to maintain Greek heritage and strengthen Greek identity.


Marxism is a political and economic theory developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels with the goal of applying the key principles in practice, which can help to spread communism. The history of Greece does not show any connection between  the Greek people and the ideas of Marxism, although Greek philosophers were involved in establishing strong ideas of social construction.

Orientalism (Said, Clifford, Young)

Orientalism can be defined as a unique style of thought, which helps to establish a set of practices with the goal of examining and re-evaluating perceptions of oriental culture. It encourages construction of certain European attitudes toward Muslims and foster the Western discourse about “the other”. In Greek culture, there are no any negative attitudes toward Arabic world. Greek culture is impressed by the oriental cultures, such as the cultures of the Near East and Egypt. Many cultural elements found in Greek culture were adopted from oriental cultures.


Colonialism can be defined as the practices that are based to ensure either full or partial political control of one territory over another territory with the goal of occupation and economical exploitation. In Greece, colonialism was born in ancient times when ancient Greeks began to capture new territories and found new cities overseas.


Post-colonialism can be defined as a historical period that refer to the aftermath of Western colonialism. In Greece, post-colonialism was reflected in the expression of views about certain issues in philosophical ethics and politics.


Post-modernism refers to a cultural period of the distinct shift in the views of humanistic intellectuals regarding their artistic expression and cultural work presented to society. From the aesthetic perspective, post-modernism criticizes modernism and it is not connected to the aesthetic assumptions of classical Greek art (Bennett et al. 372).


Nationalism can be defined as loyalty to the national principles, values, traditions and rules. It promotes the sense of national consciousness. In Greece, nationalism is related to pre-modern period, which strengthened national ideology of Greece.


Romanticism can be defined as a cultural movement of 18th century that was spread in the areas the arts and literature with the goal of emphasizing human inspiration, highlighting subjectivity, and giving special attention to the primary role of the individual. In Greece, Romanticism emerged in the 1820s. Its impact on Greek poetry was significant. 


Positivism can be defined as a philosophical theory that states that any rationally justifiable assumption can be scientifically proved. This theory supports rejection of metaphysics and theism. In Greece, positivism had no impact on culture.

Works Cited

Bennett, Tony, Grossberg, Lawrence, and Morris, Meaghan, eds. 2005. New Keywords : A Revised Vocabulary of Culture and Society. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

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[Accessed: June 1, 2020]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 1, 2020]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 1, 2020]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 1, 2020]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 1, 2020]