Discussion Of Water & Sustainability

Part 1

            The concept of sustainability has changed in my perception since I used to view sustainability as a complex issue that involves the elaboration of environment-friendly policies by the government and legislators supported by large businesses. However, the study of the concept of sustainability led me to the reevaluation of my views on sustainability since I have become aware of the fact that sustainability is not the matter of large corporations or government only but it is also the matter of the individual environmental responsibility of each person. Natural resources are scarce and exhausting in the course of time and the responsible attitude of each individual to the natural environment and the use of environment friendly technologies that minimize one’s footprint should be implemented not only by large corporations but also by every individual. The sustainability is the common concept because if some companies or individuals do implement the strategy of the sustainable development, while others do not, the sustainability will be very difficult to achieve.

            The preservation of the planet and natural environment for next generations is the main purpose of sustainability. This is another conceptual change in my view on sustainability. I used to believe that sustainability is just the matter of the decrease of the environment pollution, while sustainability is rather the preservation of the natural environment and the focus on the minimization of environmental consequences of human activities which ultimate goal is to preserve the environment as it is for generations to come.

Part 3

            4 a)

            Water is natural and essential resource which should be available to all people. This is why people living in remote areas with scarce water supply still should have the right to get some minimum water supply to ensure their survival and meeting basic sanitary norms to prevent illness, epidemics and overall decline of the quality of life within their communities. In such a situation, the responsibility of communities with large water supply is to help communities with low water supply to get access to minimum water level to satisfy their basic needs. This is not just a mere moral obligation of communities that have access to water but also it is the matter of the public health safety and economic interests of communities. In this regard, it is worth mentioning the main consequence of the lack of safe water which is the steep decline of the public health that means the increased health care costs and risks of epidemics which may spread not only within communities with poor water supply but also they may spread globally, especially in the contemporary globalized world.

            Furthermore, the shortage of safe water and deterioration of the public health leads to the downturn of the economic development of communities or even entire nations under the impact. In such a situation, even communities and nations with rich water resources cannot feel safe because people from areas with poor water resources will simply move to areas with rich water resources and bring their public health and economic problems there. This is why it is simply cheaper for communities with rich water resources to help communities with poor water resources to get access to basic safe water supply to prevent the decline of public health and economy in those communities rather than wait when the migration of the population from those communities will bring those problems to their own communities.

Part 4


            a) Farmers in Illinois and California are in a different position concerning the water supply because of the substantial difference in the available water resources. Illinois is rich in water resources, especially compared to California, where the shortage of water is obvious. Also farmers in Illinois and California have different irrigation needs determined by natural conditions. Illinois farmers do not need and do not have as much irrigated farmlands as have farmers in California. In addition, farmers in Illinois can benefit from the consistently large amount of precipitation than farmers in California, while precipitation is essential for cultivation of crops and other farming activities.

            b) The water supply situation in Illinois and California is determined by two major factors. First, there is the difference in the available water resources, which are consistently higher in Illinois compared to California. Second, there is the different level of consumption of water resources in Illinois and California, which is higher in California compared to Illinois.


            c) California develops organic farming that is more water-efficient compared to industrial farming that prevails in Illinois. California has better developed and more efficient irrigation system that allows using water resources more efficiently and obtain better crops. California tends to use advanced technologies to process water efficiently and minimize its use.

            d) Illinois is doing better in water use in quantitative terms. Also Illinois has lower water consumption for farming needs due to the lower irrigation level. Illinois  has larger water supply.

            e) The virtual water export is the export of products which require the use of water, for example, agricultural products. California has higher virtual water export compared to Illinois.

            f) Virtual water export affects water sustainability development of the state because virtual water export involves the consumption of real water.

            g) Overall, the water use is more sustainable in California because the state has higher level of the water demand and lower water supply compared to Illinois. Hence, California uses more advanced water use strategies.   In addition, California focuses more on the development of organic farming compared to Illinois.

Works Cited:

Anonymous. Drinking Water treatment Methods, 2011. Web. Accessed June 6, 2017 http://www.cyber-nook.com/water/Solutions.html

Anon. Use of reclaimed water in municipal drinking-water supplies. Journal of Environmental Health. 60(10), 1998, 39-41.

Bartram, J, Lewis, K, Lentron R. et al. Focusing on improved water and sanitation for health. The Lancet. 365(9461), 2005,810-812.

Hobbins M. The SODIS Health Impact Study, Ph.D. Thesis, Swiss Tropical Institute Basel, 2003

Hoekstra, A and Chapagain, A. Efficient, Sustainable, and Equitable Water Use in a Globalized World, in Globalization of Water: Sharing the Planet’s Freshwater Resources. Blackwell Publ., MA, USA, 2008.

Sciacca F, Rengifo-Herrera JA, Wéthé J, Pulgarin C. “Dramatic enhancement of solar disinfection (SODIS) of wild Salmonella sp. in PET bottles by H(2)O(2) addition on natural water of Burkina Faso containing dissolved iron” Chemosphere 78 (9), 2010, 1186–91

The terms offer and acceptance. (2016, May 17). Retrieved from

[Accessed: January 20, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016.

[Accessed: January 20, 2022]

freeessays.club (2016) The terms offer and acceptance [Online].
Available at:

[Accessed: January 20, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: January 20, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: January 20, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: January 20, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: January 20, 2022]
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