Earth’s Interior & Geophysical Properties | Discussion

Chapter 2 of the book has the title “Earth’s Interior and Geophysical Properties” and it allows students to gain a lot of knowledge about our planet and its main properties. This chapter includes different sub-headings, and each part of the chapter helps to understand the structure of the Earth better.

Introduction to the chapter gives an understanding of the necessity to explore Earth, as well as describes the ways, which geologists use in their searches for information about the Earth. The part “evidence from seismic waves” demonstrates that the study of seismic reflection is an important way of learning something new about Earth’s interior. For instance, this part gives an understanding that a strong earthquake generates volume waves that permeate the body of the planet, as if lighting it from the inside. Like a ray of light, a seismic ray obeys the laws of optical optics, the laws of reflection and refraction.

The part “Earth’s internal structure” explains that our planet consists of the crust, the mantle and the core. This chapter explains that the core has good electrical conductivity and high density. It is assumed that it is composed of iron and nickel, although the opinions of scientists differ. Some of them believe that the outer core consists of liquid metal, and the inner core is made of solid metal.

The next part “isostasy” demonstrates that isostasy affects the amplitude of tectonic movements. The study of isostatic disturbances makes it possible to analyze stresses in the earth’s crust and lithosphere; and it is used for seismic zoning, elucidating the physical properties of the Earth’s matter.

To continue, “gravity measurement” helps to realize that the study of the gravitational field on the earth’s surface showed that it has a complex structure that is conditioned by the homogeneity of the matter of the earth’s crust and mantle. Therefore, the gravitational field is divided into normal and anomalous. Moreover, “earth’s magnetic field” is an invisible shield protecting our planet from the effects of cosmic radiation. Changes in the Earth’s magnetic field in time, caused by various causes, are called geomagnetic variations, which differ in both their duration and localization on the Earth and in its atmosphere. Finally, the part “heat within the Earth” allows to explore geothermal gradient and heat flow, demonstrating that geothermal gradient characterizes the change in temperature of rocks per unit of distance, while the question of the distribution of temperature is closely related to the distribution of heat sources in the depths of the earth. Temperature (together with pressure) is the most important parameters of the Earth’s interior.

To conclude, the chapter 2 opens many new facts about our planet and helps the students to study geophysical properties of Earth with many details. This chapter is written in understandable language and includes detailed descriptions of the facts, as well as bright illustrations allow to perceive information through images more fully.

Work Cited

Carlson, D. and Plummer, C. Physical Geology: Earth Revealed, 9th Ed. McGraw-Hill Education, 2010.

The terms offer and acceptance. (2016, May 17). Retrieved from

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016.

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

freeessays.club (2016) The terms offer and acceptance [Online].
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[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]
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