Executive Functions Free Essay

Executive functions in psychology and their development in children

 

Working memory is the basic cognitive process that allows temporary storage of information necessary for numerous complex tasks such as language, spatial analysis, and decision making. Attention is necessary for higher level processes such as space navigation and responding to environmental stimuli. Executive function is the cognitive process that helps in planning, problem-solving, behavioral regulation, cognitive flexibility, and feedback utilization (Stiles et al., 2012). There are three core executive functions, working memory, inhibitory control, and set-shifting and they are related, they work together to ensure everyday living. The working memory helps remember short-term information and helps recall from memory when needed; inhibitory control is the ability of an individual to inhibit impulses, control thoughts and behaviors, for example, if one gets hit in public, the inhibitory impulse can help restrain the individual from retaliating. Set-shifting allows the individual to adapt to different situations; it is a cognitive process that allows the individual to shift attention during various tasks, for example, the ability to move from one task to another without a problem.

Inhibitory control and working memory skills start to emerge in children at about 7-12 months. The child can recognize his or her parents, by age three, children do not act impulsively, they act deliberately and flexible, for example, a three-year-old child knows to report a child if he or she is hit. By age five, children demonstrate inhibition and working memory; they begin to reflect on their actions (McCalla, 2018), for example, a child at this age knows that he or she has done something wrong. Executive functions help in learning and development, the working memory helps to remember things that are learned every day, the inhibitory control helps the child control his or her emotions, impulses and behaviors, and set-shifting helps in completion of numerous tasks, for example, a child can complete maths and English assignments in a day. The prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum are involved in executive functions; the prefrontal cortex is associated with shift set, planning, planning, response inhibition, and problem-solving. The ventral striatum is associated with emotional drives, experience, and integration. Young children are willing to delay gratification based on social trust and a bigger end reward. If one marshmallow was placed on a table and the child was told that he or she could have the marshmallow now or have three marshmallows later after doing a specific task, the child would inhibit his or her impulses to get more marshmallows later.

Abuse, economic instability, and neglect can affect the executive functions of children negatively. Focused assessment and gratification can help children’s executive functions in the classroom.

References

McCalla, A. (2018). Executive Functioning – Where is it Controlled and How Does it Develop? / Remediation Techniques for Deficits and Dysfunction. Rainbow Rehabilitation Centers. Retrieved on 6 January 2019 from https://www.rainbowrehab.com/executive-functioning/#attachment%20wp-att-6197/0/

Stiles, J., Reilly, J. S., Levine, S. C., Trauner, D. A., & Nass, R. (2012). Neural plasticity and cognitive development: Insights from children with perinatal brain injury. Oxford University Press.

The terms offer and acceptance. (2016, May 17). Retrieved from

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016.

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

freeessays.club (2016) The terms offer and acceptance [Online].
Available at:

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]
close
Haven't found the right essay?
Get an expert to write you the one you need!
print

Professional writers and researchers

quotes

Sources and citation are provided

clock

3 hour delivery

person