Familiar Risk Factors Favoring Drug Addiction Onset Research Paper

Drug is any substance of vegetable or synthetic origin, that when administered into the body can change one or more functions due to repeated use and cause mental or physical dependence in humans.

There are several classifications of drugs, but all of them are medical in nature. The following types of drugs:

  • analgesics (morphine, codeine, opium poppy, heroin, etc.), which are used in medicine as analgesics, which have an inhibitory effect on the central nervous system.;
  • depressants – drugs used in medicine as hypnotics, sedatives, anesthesia; when non-medical use of these agents cause intoxication (this includes alcohol, barbiturates, tranquilizers);
  • stimulants (nicotine, caffeine, cocaine, amphetamine, etc.), which have a stimulating effect on the central nervous system, causing the increase of mental and physical activity, a sense of cheerfulness, tidal forces, self-confidence.;
  • hallucinogens – synthetic means LSD, mescaline (made from cactus buds), psilocybin (obtained from fungi), bufotein (made from the venom of toads or fungi) and other that alter the emotional state of the person, accompanied by hallucinations. The medicine is not applied;
  • pills derived from cannabis – this includes cannabis, hashish, marijuana, hemp, etc. (medicine used to treat cancer, glaucoma);
  • inhaler – inhaled anesthetic agents (nitrous oxide, ether, chloroform) (Currie-McGhee, 2010).

A variety of substance abuse is drug abuse. When substance abuse instead of drugs are introduced into the body a variety of chemicals, including those not intended for domestic consumption, such as a pair of gasoline, household chemicals, etc. To distinguish substance abuse-related:

  • firstly, the abuse of stimulants, unrelated to drugs, such as caffeine, chifir;
  • secondly, the systematic inhalation of volatile aromatic compounds, using readily available and common household chemicals, nitro paints, solvents, agents for removing stains, synthetic adhesives and others.

There are different opinions about the typology of drug addicts, which includes five conditional groups:

  • the experimenters – to it are those who do not return to this pernicious lesson after the first acquaintance with the drug.
  • occasional users – it is mainly those who resort to drugs because of the circumstances, it is that they do not have more desire to take drugs.
  • systematic consumers – take drugs in a specific pattern, naively believing that it will not have any negative impact on their psyche and physiology.
  • permanent customers – are sequentially formed from the first three groups, often already psychologically and forced to take drugs constantly addicted to drugs.
  • drug addicts – included in this group of individuals dependent on drugs is not only psychologically, but also physically (Gregory, 2013).

1.2 Stages of Addiction

The first stage of opioid addiction

Repeated reception (3-5 injections of heroin, morphine injection 10-15, 30 receptions codeine) gives rise to a pleasant bodily sensations and psychological “euphoria” of complacency, the apparent “volatilization” of all problems and mental agony. It contribute to the formation of craving for the drug addict again and again tends to experience a “high” and drug addiction to become a regular (Barnard, 2006). Addict alert and agile to the injection, but sluggish and lethargic afterwards. Appetite suppressed, sleep surface, but subjectively sufficient, there are constipation, urinary retention. Without drugs there is a feeling of dissatisfaction, and mentally relaxed state is achieved only in a state of opioid intoxication. This is the main feature of the formation of a bright first stage of addiction, as a healthy person can be happy and satisfied with many other events of his life, the addict – now only in intoxication.

The main component of psychological dependence on opiates is formed. Is gradually getting used to it, the initial amount of the drug does not have the desired effect, and dose increases. The absence of the drug for 1-2 days affects mainly on the psychological state: a sense of tension, mental discomfort, the desire to take the drug, which translates into a systematic anesthesia mode. The duration of the first stage of opioid addiction last from 2 to 6 months.

The second stage of opioid addiction

Continued regular anesthesia with the formation of the individual rhythm introduction leads to the body’s ability to transfer a dose of drug in the 100-300 times more therapeutic. This eliminates the physiological effects of opiates – normal stool and urine output, returns cough colds, restores sleep. Psychic dependence reaches the height of its development. Changing the behavior of an addict, he is lethargic and powerless to injection and after it is animated, not experiencing euphoria from taking the next dose.

Mentally and, now, physically relaxed state becomes attainable only in narcotic intoxication. Opiates are actively incorporated into most of the biochemical processes of the internal organs exchange of substances of the musculoskeletal system, central and peripheral nervous system and replace many components synthesized by the body that has become unnecessary and the formation ceases. The organism is reconstructed on the use of opiates without them can not function. This is the meaning of physical dependence on the drug – the main feature of the second stage of addiction. The second stage of opioid addiction manifested compulsive, irresistible attraction to the drug because of the pronounced physical suffering in his absence (abstinence, “breaking”): insomnia, lack of appetite, dilated pupils, intense yawning, watery eyes, runny nose, repeated sneezing, chills, gives way to a sense of fever, sweating, weakness; pain in the muscles of the back and extremities, neck, peripheral muscle cramps, pain in the maxillary joints, masticatory muscles; restlessness, severe restlessness, movement initially bring relief, then increase the pain; malice, irritability, depressed mood with a sense of despair and hopelessness, impulsivity in behavior; abdominal pain, vomiting intestine, diarrhea 10-15 times a day). All this takes place overnight, with taking the next dose of heroin.

There are specific external behavioral signs of opioid (heroin) drug addict:

  • unusual drowsiness at the wrong time; if you leave the addict alone, he begins to fall asleep in any position and nod, periodically waking up and if it is to call out, he just engage in conversation as if he did not sleep;
  • a drug addict delayed speech, he stretches the word, begins to talk about the topic, which has long been discussed and forgotten, some times may say the same thing, but can be lively, witty and sociable;
  • sometimes very good-natured, flexible, accommodating, and attentive; often gives the impression of an extremely diffuse or thoughtful person;
  • reduced pain sensitivity and it can forget about cigarette and burn it on the hot griddle or not feeling pain;
  • tends better privacy in a separate room, thus there include television or video and sleep; sometimes, on the contrary he wants to be in the community, even if it does not ask intrusive, importunate;
  • pupil in intoxication extremely narrow and extended completely in the dark, so at twilight illumination, visual acuity decreases markedly, pale skin dry warm;
  • a drug addict until late at night difficult to put to bed “is normal”, that is, in bed with the light off in the room,
  • any behavior of an addict is focused on the maintenance of anesthesia by any means, he loses his job, begins to steal, first at home, then, “the street”, easily neglect their social responsibilities a son, husband, father, etc (Hicks, 1997).

The duration of the second stage since the drug signs of physical dependence 5-10 years. During this period, the most likely development of various complications of drug use: overdose and death due to paralysis of the respiratory center and respiratory failure, infectious processes (cellulitis, abscesses at the injection site, sepsis, septic lesions of the internal organs), infection with hepatitis B and C, HIV , a variety of injuries.

The third stage of opioid addiction

Opioid addiction and it continues lecheniePatsient continuous anesthesia, signs of psychological dependence suppressed physical signs. Tolerability of the drug is reduced to 1/3 of the previous dose. The action of the drug extremely stimulating, toning. Without energy there is no drug until the inability to move (Mason, 2010). Abstinence severe, occurs in the first days after the deprivation of the drug: the prevalence of deep melancholy, apathy, hopelessness, despair, hopelessness expressed in the background of the energy depletion, immobility, the complete lack of appetite, insomnia, persistent and debilitating diarrhea. Yawning, runny nose, sneezing, watery eyes, muscle pain are insignificant.

The mode of anesthesia – severe mental exhaustion with the general background of depressed mood, irritability, and constant fatigue, sudden premature aging of the organism, the depletion of the immune system, decompensation of various somatic diseases.

Unformed or mentally or socially a person to drug addiction, only degrading during her almost completely decomposed to the third stage of addiction, commits antisocial and antisocial behavior. There are frequent cases of premature, including violent death.

1.3 Factors of drug addiction

The problem of drug abuse has been around for decades, but, unfortunately, to deal with this scourge has not yet learned. However, a detailed study and constant monitoring of the problem made it possible to understand how it all started and what caused the transformation of drug abuse in one of the social problems of all mankind. Thus, the main causes of drug trafficking in the world include:

The weakness of the governments, the state’s inability to exercise effective control over the territory under their jurisdiction area

Carrying out state policy of connivance with respect to drug trafficking or tacit policy of reconciliation in relation to their income brought by the public, either for fear of countermeasures on the part of criminals.

A powerful factor in the development of drug trafficking is a political and economic instability. It involves the use of significant financial resources from the production and sale of drugs for political purposes. Proof of this are the cases where the finances received from drug smuggling, go for the purchase of weapons for launching and maintaining inter-ethnic conflicts. This expanded relationship with organized crime and terrorism by extremist groups.

Weakening and dysfunctions of social institutions, excessively high rates of socio-economic and political changes due to the transition of post-socialist countries to a market economy. The absence or imperfection of the legislation and monitoring its implementation, combined with a sharp aggravation of the socio-economic problems in these conditions is a favorable environment for the development of drug trafficking. In such cases, the drug business is actively involved the most active people with limited financial and economic resources.

The corruption of the governments, whose members are making huge profits from the illegal activity and therefore did not take any measures for its reduction or containment. The distinction between the corrupt and collude with the criminals the government is only in the degree of direct participation of its members in the drug business.

The increasing demand for illicit goods, easy to overcome border barriers for the importation of drugs.

Saving inequalities between industrialized and developing countries, a disadvantage in the past is put in the system of international trade and hamper their normal economic progress and opportunities provided by legitimate commercial activities. An attractive alternative is the choice of poverty, illegal methods of business. The liberalization of foreign trade.

Economic crises, stimulating the search to improve the financial situation by engaging in illegal business. Businesses use it accumulated knowledge and experience of traditional industries. In a crisis, participation in drug trafficking to temporarily alleviate the problem of employment of many people. Under these conditions, the activities of illegal groups is perceived positively. Such loyalty is essential for criminals, as difficult to work counterintelligence services and counteract the impact of law enforcement operations.

There are also some of the social factors that influence the development of the above mentioned social problems. The unstable economic situation, characterized by a decline in the living standards of much of Russia’s population, a decrease in business activity, a significant level of unemployment in some regions, a lack of understand and realize the people the conditions for the rapid improvement of the situation leads to a state of so-called “social depression”, the lack of a sense of personal perspective and significance. Advertised by certain media (the media), high standards of personal well-being, which are formed under the influence of foreign film and television, have lead to the formation of the mentally immature young people imitating behavior.

The role of narcotic and psychoactive substances, in imitation of “prosperity” is very significant. The lack of a coherent information strategy, orienting the young generation of the country on the “preservation” of their own health and performance as the main factor and binding his own life being. Rough and often careless handling of materials on drugs in some media, resulting in the formation of “unhealthy” interest in consumption and consumers, a “positive” attitude toward them.

The trend towards “humanization” in relation to drug addiction as a social phenomenon, often wearing abstract nature, without taking into account the actual conditions, which include:

Behavioral disorders in children and adolescents, accompanied by non-medical use of psychoactive substances, in particular those related to drugs, can be caused by various psychological (or psychiatric) reasons. In recent decades, disorders and behaviors in children and adolescents differently understood and classified by different researchers work over the years. Thus, a particular disorder (or mentally) can hardly be classified in terms of semiotics sufficiently correctly. Psychological mechanisms of anesthesia beginning lies in the fact that the surrounding conditions do not provide microsocial well developed intellectually individual a sufficient basis for the emotional and intellectual saturation. Life process in these cases is subjectively perceived by the individual as “boring” (Ross, 2002). Each group of these factors by itself is not a uniquely narkoprovotsiruyuschey. Their simultaneous action creates favorable conditions for the development of drug addiction. In order to overcome this situation and improve the efficiency of operations needed efforts in various directions.

1.5 Problem Solving

There is no universal method for solving the problem of drug addiction, it is necessary to apply a set of measures to reduce the spread of this social problem in our country:

Firstly, you need strict government regulation of the problem. There was compulsory treatment of drug addicts, which gradually went down in history. However, it was quite effective stroke. You must enter a tough fight against drug trafficking. Now in the country there is an unpardonable connivance when customs officers at the border cover drug importing drugs into the territory of our country. You need to check all the pupils and students on drug addiction, because at this age there is a tendency to use.

Secondly, it is necessary to conduct educational activities related to the harm of drugs. On the television should not be movies and programs that spoke condescendingly about drugs and drug addiction. And especially should express approval of those countries that have legalized the use of drugs. The family must explain to the child that drug addiction – is a serious problem, which can be a fatal mistake in life. Every teenager is necessary to look both parents and teachers, because many children start using drugs, thinking that no one needs.

Thirdly, it is necessary to connect the public service, which will be able to convey to the public that drug addiction – it is really the bane of all mankind, that it applies to all. However, the advertising should motivate, not to frighten and disgust.

References

Barnard, M. 2006. Drug addiction and families. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Currie-McGhee, L.K. 2010. Drug addiction. USA: Referencepoint Press.

Gregory, N. 2013. Drug addiction. Create Space Independent Publishing Platform.

Hicks, J. 1997. Drug addiction. USA: Millbrook Press.

Mason, P. 2010. Surviving drug addiction. USA: Arcturus Publishing.

Ross, I.A. 2002.  Molecular biology of drug addiction. London: Humana Press.

 

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"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: April 1, 2020]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: April 1, 2020]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: April 1, 2020]