National Drug Control Strategy Research Paper

National Drug Control Strategy  is  set of  techniques and governmental policies aiming to reduce the use of illicit drugs in the United States. National Strategy underlines big scope of the problem caused by illicit drug use and big damage to the society. It underlines that situation is very serious and needs immediate action. This doctrine is based on the assumption that drug addiction is not a moral choice of a  personality, but rather a disease, which needs special treatment and special approach. This shift in the attitude towards drug addiction became peculiar distinguishing feature in the approach to substance use.  This attitude defines new strategies in treating the problem of illicit drugs use. National Drug control Strategy defined seven basic initiatives, which include: prevention of drugs use; early interventions in the case of abuse; integration of drug addiction treatment and further recovery practices; destroying connections between drug use and crime; prevention of production and distribution of homemade drugs; developing international cooperation in the sphere drug control; development of different information campaigns aiming  to inform population about potential dangers of drug use. In his speech Obama defined basic initiatives aiming to decrease the use of illicit drugs: “We’re partnering with communities to prevent drug use, reduce overdose deaths, help people get treatment.  And under the Affordable Care Act, more health plans have to cover substance abuse disorders.  The budget that I sent Congress would invest in things like state overdose prevention programs, preparing more first responders to save more lives, and expanding medication assisted treatment programs.”  (National Drug Control Strategy, 2015).

In addition, National Strategy plan pays special attention to the prevention of medical drug misused. The goals set in order to deal with this problem include  development of prevention measure, rigid control over medical drugs prescription and some others. There are  special positions in the budget of the country aiming to spend considerable amount of money on the research aiming to stop opioid epidemic.

In  general, National Drug Control Strategy became a guide for the development of Federal policy, as well as helpful guide for any organizations dealing with the problem of drug use. National Drug Control Strategy puts a lot of effort to make treatment from drug addiction available for different categories of people. For this purpose  different medical programs will be developed. In addition, research and investigation will be financed to find easiest ways to deal with different kinds of drug addiction. Drug Control Strategy also pays attention to legal side of the problem. Strategy aims to  implement changes in judicial system in order to make system more effective. Like mentioned above, it is also an important task to break the connection between drugs and crime. This problem is closely connected to the problem of foreign-produced drugs. National Drug Control Strategy contains several points  which stress on the necessity to enhance international coordination in order to limit or stop the flow of foreign-produced drugs to the country. For these purpose internal laws and work of accordant agencies should be coordinated with international agencies. Drugged driving is another doubtful legal issue which gets scrupulous attention in the document.

National Drug Control Strategy is open to global changes in the world. It makes an effort to predict possible challenges created by major changes in social, technical and political structure of the world. Different analytical, informational and managerial approaches are used in order to deal with existing and possible challenges.  Development of digital technologies create additional opportunities for drug sellers. In addition, these technologies make it easier to come in contact with people who buy and sell drugs. This new challenges require immediate response and National Drug Control Strategy pays a lot of attention to the improvement of informational and analytical component of drug fight.

Introduction

Drug control plan should influence different areas of people’s life. For this purpose it is necessary to distinguish judicial, medical, educational and informative components of the plan. Each of these components needs separate strategy and approach. Different  aspects of Drug Control Plan should deal with different institutions and target groups.

It is also important to take into account certain changes in attitudes towards drug addiction. Like mentioned in the National Drug Control Strategy, attitude to drug addiction has been changed during recent years. At the present moment it is treated like illness and these attitude  requires serious changes in the methods and approaches used to fight drug use (Bruce, 2010). It is evident that people with drug addiction cannot get out of this addiction only through their voluntary decision and require special help and special treatment. At this point responsibility of those, who sell  and popularize  drugs, growth, because they  become consciously engaged in actions which cause harm to other people.

Defining the Problem

Use of illicit drugs is a burning problem of the contemporary society. The problem is affected by several internal and external factors. It is important  to know these factors when building  Drug Control Strategy. At the present moment drug abuse is affected by speculations with prescriptions of different medical drugs, such as painkillers. The situation is also affected by the production of cheap drugs, such as heroin. These drugs are sometimes produced outside of the country, in Mexico, for example, and then are transported to the US. The situation with heroin use takes the scope of an epidemic, and factors mentioned above contribute to the problem. As pointed out in Drug Control Report: The epidemic affects men and women, people of all races and individuals across ages and income levels. In New Hampshire, the crisis is especially acute with 99 deaths related to heroin (compared to 12 murders in the state) in 2014” (Drug Control Plan, 2016).

Drug control plan should mind all problems, challenges and complications which emerged during recent time. In 2010 the President Barak Obama initiated the development of the National Drug Control Policy.  This policy has a large scope and good financing, but, unfortunately, till present moment the quantity of people who consume illicit drugs growth, same as the name of heroin-related deaths.

 Complex approach, which takes into account different aspects of the problem must create the most effective combination of  dealing with the problem. Dealing with the problem of drug use, it is important to take active action on different stages of the problem. It is necessary put effort in prevention of drug use, strengthening measures against those, who already use and sell drugs and development of effective treatment for those, who wants to quite.

Judicial Aspect

When dealing with the problem of illicit drugs it is important to combine effort of Federal government and local legislative initiatives.  It is necessary to enforce Federal laws against drug selling and drug supplies. It is also important to unite efforts of different organizations in order to reach good results in this area.

Enhancing legislation and further control in medical institutions is also an important component of Drug Control Strategy. It is important to provide strict description of cases when drugs can be used in medical purposes.  All other cases of drug use should be severely punished. 

It is important to provide severe punishment to all participants of drug chains. People who are responsible for making, selling and distributing drugs should be punished in accordance to the degree of their fault. It is necessary to make distinctions between violent and non-violent drug offenders and react accordingly.  It is important to make distinctions between people who consume drugs and cannot quite this negative habit and other categories  of drug offenders, who sell drugs and make money on this. In the first case, it is necessary to remember that drug addiction is a kind of illness or physical dysfunction, which requires special medical approach. In the case of drug addiction people cannot leave this habit themselves. Their punishment should not be really severe and they should get the chance to recover and have a normal life. The second category of people, which consists of those, who distribute drugs, should be treated with zero tolerance. These drug offenders should get severe sentences because they perform conscious harm to other people. When dealing with drugs, it is important to stop or reduce drug supplies.  “Supply reduction is generally defined as strategies and actions which prevent, stop, disrupt or otherwise reduce the production of supply of illegal drugs as well as efforts to control, manage and/or regulate the availability of legal drugs” (McSweeney, T., & Turnbull, 2011, p. 59). There should be developed a set of measures aiming to reduce drug supplies.  

Effective work of police institutions, FBI and other agencies should be also combined be effective work of custom service. It is evident that major part of drugs comes to the US from the abroad, and it is necessary to enhance security measure in order to stop the flow of drugs from such countries as Mexico, Afghanistan and Columbia.  “Research consistently shows a direct link between emerging violence and the illicit drug trade  This is most evident in drug producing areas like Mexico, a country with which the U.S. shares a nearly 2,000-mile border” (Beittel, 2011).

Preventive Measures and Informational Campaign.

It is evident that it is always easier to prevent the problem than to solve it later. This is very true in the case of drug addiction. It is necessary to put all possible effort on anti-drug agitation. For this purpose, it would be useful to launch several informational campaigns, aiming to warm people about the dangers of drug addiction.  Contemporary digital era provides variable opportunities for informational influence, and all of them should be influence in anti-drug informational companies.

 The prospect theory, which is often used as a basis for different information campaigns, describes two different frameworks used for the delivery of information. These frameworks include gain framework and risk framework. Gain framework centers on positive consequences of the actions performed. It underlines all benefits of the desired  lifestyle or behavior. It also may include success stories of different people who have chosen a desires way of behavior. In the case with Drug Control Strategy, gain framework may include stories of happy people who know how to enjoy their lives without drugs. It also may contain success stories of different people who gave up drugs and came back to normal life. These stories can describe  lives  of celebrities and ordinary people. When using a gain framework, it is important to take into account different categories of population. Different categories have different life goals and different life values, and that is the reason they should be approached differently.

Risk framework is another instrument of the prospect theory. It is also used to create a powerful informational influence, but uses negative emotions and centers on negative consequences in the case when a subject chooses undesirable behaviors. In the case with drug use, it would be important to stress on legal punishment, health problems and communication and career problems caused by drug use. In this case, informational campaign will center on punishment for drug using and drug distribution. Unfortunately, big number of people tries drugs in the considerable young age. In this age they can be unaware of legal consequences of drug consumption and distribution. Risk framework can be successfully used to speak about further problems caused by such behavior. Different social, health and mental problems should become another focus of risk framework. People should be aware of negative consequences provoked by different kinds of drugs. It is also important to speak about the nature of addiction and its consequences.

Information campaign should be designed not only for those, who are at risks of become drug addicts. There should be other information campaigns designed for ordinary people who may have potential drug addicts in their surroundings. These campaigns should give information about how to warn people about potential dangers of drug addiction and should help to recognize signs of this addiction. There is  a strong need to launch educating programs for teachers and parents, in order to teach them deal with different cases of drug addiction.

Treatment of Drug Addictions

Since the attitude towards drug addiction has changed during the recent decades, attitudes towards treatment of drug addicts should be changed accordingly. In the changed attitude to the problem, treatment of  drug addiction becomes an extremely important part of Drug Control Strategy.  First it is important to combine effort of different specialists looking for effective measures to treat drug addiction. Drug addiction is a complex combination of psychological and physical addiction, which should be treated only by different methods. It is necessary to invest money in different researches, aiming to define the reason of addition and help overcome it. So, it is important to attract best specialists from different fields in order to develop of the most effective ways of dealing with drug addiction. These measures can be developed in order to reduce psychological and physiological addiction.

 Gardner in his researches speaks about psychological and sociological reasons of drug addiction. He states that problem of drug popularization emerges not because of drugs dealers and distributors, but because of people who consume drugs. People who are ready to consume drugs create a demand for drug production and drug distribution. So, curing social problems and giving timely psychological support can become an effective means to deal with the problem of drug addiction. As Gardner notes: “Of course politicians don’t like to admit they aren’t omnipotent. And they really don’t want to say unpopular things in public, particularly during an election. And so both the Liberals and the Conservatives have promised to deal with gang crime by, yet again, increasing law enforcement and boosting sentences. This will fail” (Gardner, 2005,  235). Dealing with psychological side of the problem of drug addiction can become an important way helping to resolve the problem. It is important to direct research in this direction in order to find out different factors which contribute to the development of any kind of addition in general and drug addiction in particular. Multiple researches in this field can give important information on this topic. Secondly,  different treatment programs should be developed in order to help people who already have this addiction. These programs should be designed for different kinds of drugs addiction and for different categories of people.

Conclusion

Drug Control Strategy is a complex set of measures which requires a combination of effort in different fields. The problem should be approached from different perspectives. Information policy and education should be used to persuade people to escape any kind of drug addiction. Judicial side should be designed as an effective mean to stop those who produces and distributes drugs. Drug addiction is a complex process and effective treatment is necessary when dealing with this problem. For this purpose it would be useful to direct attention on the investigation of nature of addiction and development of different effective means to treat it.

References

Beittel, J. S. (2011). Mexico’s Drug Trafficking Organizations: Source And Scope of The Rising Violence. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.

Bruce,  A. (December 2010). A Change of Venue for Addiction: From Medicine to Social Science. 

Bush, J. (2016). Drug Control Plan, 2016, https://jeb2016.com/drug-control/

 Caulkins, J. P., & Reuter, P. (2010). How drug enforcement affects drug prices. Crime and Justice, 39(1), 213–271.       

National Drug Control Strategy: 2008 Annual Report pp. 1-124 

Gardner, D. (2005).  The Missing Piece to the Gang-Violence Debate, Ottawa Citizen.g

National Drug Control Strategy. (2015). https://www.whitehouse.gov//sites/default/files/ondcp/policy-and-research/2015_national_drug_control_strategy_0.pdf 

Kyriacou N. Demetrios, Range, Hutson,  et al., (1999). “The Relationship Between Socioeconomic Factors and Gang Violence in the City of Los Angeles,” The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, 46(2), 344-349.

McSweeney, T., & Turnbull, P. (2011). Criminal justice/enforcement strategies of drug control. In M. A. R. Kleiman & James E. Hawdon (Eds), Encyclopedia of drug policy.

The terms offer and acceptance. (2016, May 17). Retrieved from

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"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

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"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

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