“Physical Geology: Earth Revealed” Book Review

Chapter 3

In this chapter, due attention is paid to the study of the sea floor. The origin of the sea floor has direct relation to the emergence of plate tectonics; therefore, these concepts are interrelated. It is known that researchers used different methods of study of the sea floor, including the use of the single-beam echo sounder, sea floor drilling practices, as well as a seismic reflection profiler and magnetic, gravity and seismic reflection surveys. The major features of the sea floor are the availability of two types of margins, such as a passive continental margin, which consists of continental shelf, continental slope and continental rise, and an active continental margin, which is affected by earthquakes and volcanoes to a great extent. Other terms defined in this chapter are oceanic trench, mid-oceanic ridge, sea-mounts, sub-marine canyon, reefs, rift valley, guyots, fracture zone, and others. Taking into account the recent findings in marine geological research, it is possible to identify the differences between sediments of the sea floor, namely terrigenous sediment and pelagic sediment, explore the role of oceanic crust and ophiolites in seismic activity.

It has been found that many resources taken from the sea floor are valuable and contribute to improvement of the quality of human life on this planet. Oil, gas, phosphates, menganese nodules, metallic brines, sediments and other resources have a strong impact on the growth of global economy.

This chapter provides an opportunity to learn more about the age of the sea floor. It is known that rocks and sediments help to analyze the key characteristics of the sea floor which point out to the age of over 200 million years. Formation of the oceanic crust was based on ongoing changes in the surface of Earth. Hence, the sea floor is a complex system affected by different environmental factors.

Chapter 4

In this chapter, there is much important information on the theory of plate tectonics. The author provides definition of a number of terms, including plate, lithosphere, atmosphere, divergent plate boundary, convergent plate boundary and transform plate boundary. It has been found that the surface of the Earth is not stable as it consists of moving plates. This issue was debatable in past centuries. Currently, geologists can prove this hypothesis. In 1960s, geologists used tests that considered the role of marine magnetic anomalies, the nature and effects of seismicity of the fracture zones, and other influential factors. Special attention is paid to the meaning of the Vine-Matthews Hypothesis and measurement of the rate of activity of moving plates.

Moreover, this chapter gives a clear description of indentation tectonics, providing two important examples of plate boundaries, namely the case of the collision of India with Asia and the San Andreas Transform Boundary. The size of plates can be changed; therefore, some plates slowly change the direction of their motion. All in all, the theory of plate tectonics is beneficial to geologists’ studies because it helps to better understand the key characteristics of  Earth. The fact that there are different types of volcanoes(e.g. Basaltic volcanoes, Andesitic volcanoes), earthquakes, and other activities caused by moving of the Earth’s surface means that plate tectonics has different features in different parts of the planet. Plate motions are caused by different driving mechanisms, such as ridge push, slab pull and trench suction. Mantle plumes and hot spots play an important role in fostering the motion of plates. The theory of plate tectonics contributes to the development of geology as a science, because the study of division of the lithosphere into plates which are moving independently over the mantle, helps to explain seismic activity that takes place at the boundaries of plates.

Works Cited

Carlson, Diane H. & Plummer, Charles C. Physical Geology: Earth Revealed. McGraw-Hill, 2010.

The terms offer and acceptance. (2016, May 17). Retrieved from

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016.

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

freeessays.club (2016) The terms offer and acceptance [Online].
Available at:

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]
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