Predicted Impacts of Climate Change on Coastal Dune Areas Research Paper


The weather is the state of the atmosphere over hours to weeks, temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind, caused by transfer or movement of heat energy, it is influenced by air masses, jet stream, ice sheets, greenhouse, and other factors. A constellation of these factors along with the atmosphere form makes up the climate system, so, the climate is the statistical description of the state of the climate system. Climate change is the change in the statistical properties of the climate system over a long period, months or years, usually 30 years (Australian Academy of Science, n/d). Climate change could include a rise in sea level and global warming, and they could have a significant impact on the earth’s natural protective layers like the ozone layer and coastal dunes, “Coastal dunes provide extensive protection to many of the world’s shorelines” (Carter,1991, p.29).

Report from International body

A report on the regional impacts of climate change by the intergovernmental panel on climate change is characterized mainly by a variety of headings about the coastal systems, coastal zones, and responses, the impacts on the coastlines, and other significant topics. A variety of sections that could further explain specific details in the second topic were present, as well as various intext citations from different sources. The entire report in itself was referenced. Highlighted tables were used touch on specific topics of interest related to the impact of climate change. The characteristics of this report are to make the readers interested and accessible based on their specific interest as it is related to climate change.

The report gave a summary of the coastal zones, stating the impacts sea-level rise would have on coastal zones. Furthermore, it stated that even though the reefs, coastlands, and other marine areas have adapted to climate changes in the past, there is a reason for alarm in the future because there would be further changes due to human land use and infrastructure. More extensive damage would occur especially in low lying regions where population and tourism are growing (Regional Impacts of Climate Change, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, n/d). Several countries were listed in the report including New-zealand and Australasia’s coastline; their dimensions were described and also the direct effects of rising sea level, rising temperatures as well as indirect effects that could cause potential damage to these coastlines. An explanation of how the coastlands have historically coped with sea-level rise by migrating inward, the impact of climate change especially in the Australian coral reefs would be visible and would have significant consequences on tourism (Regional Impacts of Climate Change, IPCC,n/d).

Government policy/information document

Information document by the Australian Government on Climate Change Risks to Australia’s Coasts. The report is structured into six chapters with different headings and sub-headings all relating to the topic of interests. Several figures, tables, and pictures were used throughout the document, which made it colorful and pleasing to the eye. The document did not contain in-text citations, but each chapter was referenced at the end of the document. The whole structure of the document was like a textbook which could be used in any classroom interested in knowing the risks that could arise from climate change on Australia’s coast. That could have been the reason behind the structure and character of this document. The document also included an appendix and a glossary to make users understand scientific terms that were used throughout the text.

Each chapter contains various information as it pertains to the Australian coasts and climate change. The first chapter talks about the geological history of Australia’s coastal zones as well how dynamic it is considering the number of adaptations it has made in the past to climate change (Climate Change Risks to Australia’s Coast, 2009). It discusses the social and economic value of the coastal zones. Moreover, the chapter was intended to inform about the adaptation needed to protect these values. The second chapter discusses how the changes in climate would have a severe impact on Australia’s coast using recent scientific findings to back it up. It indicated the rise in sea-level at specific times in the future years, and it is not likely to reduce. The third chapter focuses on the investments put in to enable these assessments, and the method that was applied to identify risks of overwhelming and coastal instability. Chapter 4 discusses the implications of climate change on the natural environment, especially habitats and biodiversity in the coastal zones. The fifth chapter reflects on the impact of climate change on the population, industries as well as essential services like electricity and wastewater management (Climate Change Risks to Australia’s Coast, 2009). The sixth chapter talks about how the coast can adapt to the change in climate, if there are barriers against such adaptation and if there is a need for early action. It also describes emerging areas adaptation that would benefit national co-ordination.

Peer-reviewed journal article

Peer-reviewed Journal on Near-future sea level impacts on coastal dune landscapes is structured into an abstract page, an introduction, headings and subheadings, the journal consists of various in-text citations, figures, and a reference page. The purpose of the figures is to create a pictorial representation of what the journal is about.

The article is intended to provide attention to the impacts of sea-level rise on coastal dune-scapes, knowing that these dunes protect shorelines. It reviews responses given to the prediction made by IPCC on climate change. The article discusses the how a rise in sea-level would lead to erosion (Carter, 1991). The rise in sea-level would not only have an impact on the landscape. It would affect the vegetation as well, the effect on vegetation are difficult to predict, although “a general outlook suggests the productivity and thus survivability and effectiveness, will increase” (Carter, 1991, p.38). In one of the figures, the writer described a hierarchical response system for the impact of climate change on coastal dunes (Carter, 1991). It showed the factors that are responsible for climate change and the level of impact these changes would have. The article concluded that it would be difficult to manage the impact of climate changes on the dunes with “conventional engineering techniques,” but encouraging a more dynamic environment would allow the dunes reach its full natural potential in the face of impending climate change.

Other stakeholder organization report

The Dune restoration trust of New Zealand report is characterized by a colorful cover page, divided into various sections that cover the details of the main topic. The report has in-text citations, many figures, pictures, tables and a reference page. The tables give short outlines regarding the topic. The pictures give a representation of the text beside it. The reasons for these is to engage the readers.

The report describes the impact climate change would have on the coastal dunes of Newzealand and how to tackle the problem if it is necessary.  The description of the roles of coastal dunes sets in a precedent on how damaging climate changes like sea-level rise, global warming, increase storm surges, and others would have on them, in a tabular form. the report highlighted individual climate change and the specific effect it would have on dunes and coastal communities (Dune Restoration Trust of NewZealand, n/d). Sea-level rises would lead to erosion which would cause saltwater intrusion into groundwater having a massive impact on the communities’ water supplies. The report suggests it is essential to manage these issues to maintain the importance of the dunes for the community and the people. This report also reflects the importance of natural dune building and repair.


The climate change especially sea-level rise has a damaging effect on the coastal dunes, the coastal dunes serve as a protective buffer between the sea, cities, towns and other infrastructure.  The vegetation in coastal dunes are responsible for sand building and sand fixing stabilizing the surfaces and accumulating material respectively, the coastal dunes also play a role in regulating groundwater. The rise in sea-level causes erosion that damages the dunes, vegetations, and infrastructure, the effects of climate change has been predicted to cause damages to the social and economic states of individual countries like Australia and Newzealand, most of the articles and reports that have been described above have indicated these future effects. The need for immediate action has been highlighted and the importance of creating a situation where the damage is not extensive enough for the dunes to repair themselves because artificial engineering would not help in the protection of the dunes. The best repair is natural.


Australian Academy of Science. What is Climate Change? Retrieved from

Carter, R. (1991). Near-future sea level impacts on coastal dune landscapes. Landscape Ecology, 6(1-2), 29-39.

Climate Change effects and the Importance of Sand Dunes. Dune Restoration Trust of New Zealand. Retrieved from

Climate Change Risks to Australia’s Coast (2009). A First Pass National Assessment. Department of Climate Change, Australian Government. Pp 1-156

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The Regional Impacts of Climate Change. Retrieved from

The terms offer and acceptance. (2016, May 17). Retrieved from

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016.

[Accessed: August 11, 2022] (2016) The terms offer and acceptance [Online].
Available at:

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: August 11, 2022]
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