1. How do you think the workplace policies of working parents affect the family? Give a few examples. Also, consider the family of the $300,000 annual salaried parent, as well as the $30,000 annually paid parent.
In most modern families both parents work and the fact that they are occupied at least eight hours a day has impact upon their families. The positive aspects are related to increased income, as certainly it is much easier for a family to organize their life, if their income is higher. In addition there is a psychological aspect, as there is a chance for better distribution of the family roles. At the same time parents could be impacted by the strain of distribution of their efforts between work and family roles. For example is a mother has to work instead of visiting a concert, in which her child participates. Of another example is when a boy dreams about spending time with his father, who is constantly engaged at work during weekends and holidays. Such conflicts usually result from lack of balance between work and family demands due to workplace policies, which were not worked out with consideration of the current social shifts towards both working parents. Still there are companies, which have managed to offer family –friendly work environments for their employees along with benefits and employee policies, which are finally beneficial for both sides. The family of the $300,000 annual salaried parent might have more options in comparison to the $30,000 annually paid parent. However, the problems of time spent with children could be similar.
2. What does the research say about the benefit of neighborhood collective efficacy strengthening the resilience of a child who is the resident of a dangerous neighborhood with gang and drug presence?
Neighborhoods do have their direct and indirect impacts upon children, who grow there. It is a mistake to think that disadvantaged neighborhoods are automatically harmful for all children, there are a lot of examples of successful families in poverty and crime neighborhoods. Some families are to move away from such neighborhoods and others are able to adapt. For the second category the great role is played by expansion of local programs, including after school programs, sport teams and social clubs, which would be financially available to the local parents and would contribute to well being of their children and become a part of neighborhood collective efficacy.
3. What are two famous unethical experiments carried out in the 1960-1970s and why were they considered unethical? What did the APA do in response to these experiments?
Nowadays the American Psychological Association ha worked out a Code of Conduct to be applied to the situations of psychological experiments with the aim to define strict ethical borders and limits, which should not be overcome even for the sake of scientific research. In other words experimenters are to adhere to a number of rules and regulations, which are related to consent, to ethical considerations, to confidentiality, etc. However, such strict standards did not exist all the time and this was the reason, why today it is still possible to find information about terrible unethical experiments of the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1960s Dr. Lauretta Bender from New York Creedmoor Hospital launched a kind of revolutionary treatment for children with social issues – electroshock therapy. She assumed that this was a way to treat the early signs of schizophrenia. In 1965 Canadian David Peter Reimer was born biologically male. But at the age of seven month he had to go through circumcision and his penis was accidentally damaged. His parents contacted John Money, a psychologist, who was convinced that gender is learnt and assured the parents that the boy could be turned into a girl. David committed suicide at the age of 38, as he could never identify himself as female. These and similar experiments of those decades go beyond the ethical limits, as they were ruining for human identity and definitely broke the human rights, also they were putting the participants at risk of serious psychological harm. Thus, in order to avoid similar experiments in the future, the APA had to create clear regulations for the ethical aspects of any scientific research and experimentation.
Caring for Your School-Age Child: Ages 5 to 12. American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015
Danko, Meredith. 10 Psychological Experiments That Could Never Happen Today, 2013
Romich, Jennifer. Trying to keep children out of trouble: Child characteristics, neighborhood quality, and within-household resource allocation. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2009 Mar; 31(3): 338–345.