Questions From Book “The Unfinished Nation”

p. 49 Analyze and evaluate

Question 1

The role of Native Americans in the colonization of North America was very significant because, at the beginning of the colonization, Europeans viewed Native Americans as subjects to the conversion to Christianity and as second-class people, who remained on the consistently lower stage of development compared to Europeans. Europeans attempted to civilize them and their first contacts aimed at sharing European civilization with Native Americans. They attempted to develop close relationships with Native Americans to bring them the word of God and convert them to Christianity that would mean their inclusion into European civilization.

However, in the course of time, as European colonization progressed, colonists had started to view Native Americans as subjects to the economic exploitation. Europeans developed trade with Native Americans which had proved to be extremely profitable for colonists because of different values they had compared to Native Americans. As a result, they had managed to trade successfully by exchanging objects that had no value for them and receive highly valuable goods instead from Native Americans.

At later stages of European colonization, colonists became interested in the land of Native Americans and forced them out of their land that eventually led to the extinction of many Native American tribes. Eventually, Native Americans became outcasts living in their reservations and remote areas unsuitable for the effective economic development and comfortable living, while the rest of the territory was colonized by Europeans.

Question 2

The “middle ground” between Native Americans and European settlers disappeared because Europeans felt their superiority over Native Americans and could not help from benefiting from the naivety of the native population of America. As a result, their strife for prosperity contributed to the fast elimination of the “middle ground” which prevented colonists from taking the full control over the New World. This is why, European colonists came, saw the economic and technological inferiority of Native Americans, and defeated them to push them out of their lands and to take all the advantages of their land, while the “middle ground” was just an obstacle on the way to European dominance in the New World because it urged Europeans to treat Native Americans as equals in a way.

p. 61 Understand, Analyze, and Evaluate


Racism is closely intertwined with slavery because roots of racism originate from slavery. Slavery was the ultimate form of the exploitation of African American population by white slave holders. Slaves held the lowest standing in the social hierarchy of American society. This is why whites did not only treat them  as the cheap labor force but also and mainly whites treated African Americans as mere commodities, which they could use to reach their economic and other goals. Such attitude to African Americans naturally contributed to the development of racism because the sense of racial superiority and inferiority became deep-rooted not only in the white but also in the black community. While the whites felt their absolute superiority, the blacks felt their extreme inferiority and inability to compete with the whites because they were their masters and all aspects of their life and their life itself depended on their white masters.

Question 2

Historians put forward economic arguments to explain and justify slavery. They hold the premise that European colonists needed the cheap labor to maintain the effective economic development of the New World and to make goods manufactured and produced in the New World competitive in Europe. However, such arguments are inconsistent because economic issues alone did not justify slavery. The economy of the New World could develop successfully without slavery, while the case of North American states proves that states without slavery had developed even more successfully than Southern states, where slavery comprised the core of the local economy. In this regard, cultural factors also contributed consistently to slavery because white colonists viewed the non-white population as inferior and, therefore, they admitted the treatment of non-whites as mere commodities, as slaves.

p. 52 Recall and Reflect

Question 3

The slavery in England’s Atlantic seaboard differed from slavery in the Caribbean because the latter involved the intensive exploitation of the local population, whereas the former relied heavily on the supply of slaves from Africa. In such a way, the slavery was different in these two regions and the difference derived from the local specificities and supply of slaves.

Question 4

The middle grounds in America were attempts of the native population to  take the in-between position in the emerging conflict between Native Americans and European colonists. The middle grounds were attempts to avoid the confrontation with Europeans and preservation of lands for Native Americans. One of the early attempts to create such middle grounds were attempts to confirm possession of Iroquois lands in the Ohio Valley as European commercial endeavors expand westward and southward. The local native population attempted to preserve their land and avoid conflicts with Europeans. The middle grounds had larger autonomy compared to colonies and they even preserved their formal independence.

Question 5

The Glorious Revolution in England brought the New England Dominion to the end and triggered the rebellion in Maryland. Moreover, the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution brought more freedom to colonies in their policies since they had got more opportunities to act as they wished compared to the pre-revolutionary era. Hence, the Glorious Revolution brought more freedom to colonies.

Works Cited:

Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People. New York: Humanities & Social Sciences, 2013.

The terms offer and acceptance. (2016, May 17). Retrieved from

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016.

[Accessed: June 30, 2022] (2016) The terms offer and acceptance [Online].
Available at:

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance.", 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 30, 2022]
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