Reading in the Early Grades Essay

Among all of the skills that a child acquires during the education process, starting in the first grade, reading has shown to be one of the crucial ones. What is also important is that a child’s personality begins to develop in the early years, as one steps into the world of communication and facing multiple experiences, unknown before. “Children who don’t develop age-appropriate literacy skills by the end of third grade are at high risk of school failure” (Snow & Matthews, 58). Therefore, in their article, Snow and Matthews (2016) explore the correlation of the literacy development among children of third grade, or younger and the reading programs that promote adequate literacy.

The programs that are reviewed in the article are Reading First, Success for All, and Publisher-Developed Curricula. What is more, the authors focus on two types of focuses on teaching children how to read: constrained and unconstrained skills. The programs that are listed use different methods in teaching reading. Thus the article explores different theories to find the most effective one. The first program that is introduced in the article is Reading First, which, as Snow and Matthews (63) explain, uses “financial incentives for school districts that implemented the reading methods it endorsed to influence the mix of practices in classrooms.” Another program, which is examined is Success for All, which differs from Reading First and is explained to be a “comprehensive school-improvement program with a strong emphasis in its literacy component on phonological awareness and structured phonics.” (63) What is more, scholars review a program that is developed by the book publisher that is called Publisher-Developed Curricula, which has instructed teachers as the main point of focus?

In conclusion, the authors state that children’s literacy depends on many factors. However, regarding the reading programs, the ones that have proven to be successful seem to focus on constrained skills.

Works Cited

Snow, Catherine E. & Matthews, Timothy J. “Reading and Language in the Early Grades.” Future of Children,  vol. 26, no. 1, 2016: 57-74.

The terms offer and acceptance. (2016, May 17). Retrieved from

[Accessed: April 19, 2021]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016.

[Accessed: April 19, 2021]

freeessays.club (2016) The terms offer and acceptance [Online].
Available at:

[Accessed: April 19, 2021]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: April 19, 2021]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: April 19, 2021]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: April 19, 2021]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: April 19, 2021]
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