American National Government: Realism, Liberalism, Constructivism & Marxism

International relations are rather complex and versatile and there were several theories formulated in order to better understand and interpret international relations, including realism, constructivism, liberalism, Marxism. All these theories offer their approaches and contribute to better understanding of the causes and consequences of different political choices during various historical periods in the international scene.

Realism treats the aspects of foreign policies, which are consisted during long periods of time. Realism explains the choices of states or their governments to start up wars on the basis of involuntary participation in eternal quests for power. The problem is that all states are interdependent upon each other, and often each state is concerned about the potential risks, related to international political environment and possible hostility from the side of other states. Such situations cause the leaders of the countries consider the costs and benefits of possible wars. Such aspects as state power and security are to be top prioritized. During the Cold War the distribution of powers in the world was bipolar, in other words there were two powers. Then it was transformed into unipolar U.S. military domination. This situation was the sign for America to focus more upon their own military forces. Realism theory helps to understand why irrespective of the fact that there were serious changes in leadership, America still did not reduce their military force. Also realism theory could be utilized for explaining of the Iraq invasion in 2003. America considered the geostrategic location of Iraq and added this to their security concerns. In addition Iraq had such oil resources, which were enough to be applied against the interest of America. So, according to the realism theory this invasion was a part of rational plan of the United States, aimed at demonstration of the power to allies. The major regional ally of America was Israel and impacting upon the regime in Iraq could contribute to increase of Israel’s security.

Liberalism theory assumes that all decisions, taken by the states to start up wars, are related to their internal characteristic features. There are strong connections between global security and spread of trade and democracy in the world. One of the important arguments of liberalism was that non-liberal regimes were inclined to implement hostile policies (Nguyen 2013). Whereas liberal states remained more peaceful and they needed their power mostly for self-protection. Liberalism strives towards spread of democratization, as the major strategy for securing peace in the world. Free-market economies are more focused upon their economic gains instead of creating strong military bases.

Constructivism is different from the balance of power theory, developed within realism approach and the democratic peace theory, supported by liberalism. Constructivism considers such factors, which are missed by internal and external theories. The supporters of this theory assume that human consciousness has strong impact upon world politics, as this is the starting point for explaining and interpreting of human choices and behaviors. The supporters of this theory claim that all states need to protect their self-defined interests, which are usually related to their power and wealth increase. Constructivism supports the idea that general relations between states are naturally social and are related to the significance of identity.

Marxism uses the internal economic factors in order to explain the international behaviors. The central argument in this theory is related to the benefits of the capitalist class in the society of any state and thus the foreign policy of this state is built in order to advance those benefits. This theory is effective in explaining the nature of imperialism and expansionism. In case capitalism faces economic problems, as for example unemployment rate or overproduction, then the state starts looking for new markets and new sources outside.

Overall, there are several theories of international relations, realism, constructivism, liberalism, Marxism, which could be utilized in order to trace and explain international choices and historical events.

References:

Lieberfeld, D. (2005). Theories of conflict and the Iraq war. International Journal of Peace Studies, 1-21.

Nguyen, H. T. T. (2013). Theories of US Foreign Policy: An Overview. World Journal of Social Science, 1(1), 20.

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"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

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"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 1, 2020]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 1, 2020]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: June 1, 2020]