A History of the United States: The Article of Confederation; The Mexican- American War; The Declaration of Independence| Discussion

1. The Articles of Confederation was the first document, which established the structure of the government in the country after the American Revolution. The Articles went into effect in 1781 and existed till 1789, later they were replaced with Constitution of America. Initially the Articles of Confederation were created in order to support the confederation of states with preserving of their freedom, sovereignty and independence. This meant that each state of the country was independent in most aspects, apart of remaining responsible for support of common defense and general welfare. However, soon this led to endless arguments between various states, which actually did not want to give their money for the national government. Then all states started to build their own relations with other countries and governments there, signing agreements, which could not be controlled by the Congress. Each of the states had its own military forces and own money. Such factors could not make the economy more stable and balanced. The last drop was the Shay’s Rebellion in western Massachusetts in 1786, and national government was not able to response, because there was no military force to put down the rebellion. Thus the Article of Confederation turned out to bring negative economic and military consequences. With the aim of creating a stronger national government, the Articles were substituted with the Constitution.

2. This is evident that African Americans had made their contribution into shaping of the consequences of the Civil War. Initially the war started as the major concerns were related to preserving of the Union. Abraham Lincoln commented that not the freedom of African Americans was the priority, rather preserving of the Union. However, later the war became more and more focused upon African Americans. Some researchers assume that the main reason for this was related to the Emancipation Proclamation. There were a lot of volunteers from African Americans in the Union Army. When the war ended, African Americans started to demand fulfillment of their rights in social and economic spheres from the government. They wanted to be treated equally, they wanted to have their right to vote and to realize their economic opportunities. They were pushing so hard, that finally the war became more concentrated upon African Americans and their release from slavery. At that moment the federal government was more under the control of the Republican Party and it took the decision to provide more rights to African Americans. Not many people were set free according to the Emancipation Proclamation, but it was the beginning of the process. Later more Amendments to the Constitution were made, according to which slavery was abolished, former slaves received their social rights as usual citizens of the country. The situation has not changed greatly in the southern states, where slaves continued to work in plantations and fulfill their orders of their masters, still the general consequences of the participation of African Americans in the Civil War included significant changes in their lives.

3. The Mexican- American War started in 1846 and lasted till 1848. However the roots of this war could be traced from the moment, when Mexico received independence from Spain. Mexico invited Americans come to the northern part of the country and settle there under the condition that the new citizens would convert to Catholicism and refuse from slavery. In this way Texas was formed as an independent republic and later this territory was taken by the United States. This new territory had evident impact upon the slavery issues during the war already. The U.S. House of Representatives accepted the Wilmot Proviso in 1846, according to which slavery was not allowed in the new territories. The situation became tense in 1849, when California formed a free-state government, where slavery was out of the law. The South at the same time had the allowance for slavery in the other new lands. There was the Fugitive Slave law in action, according to which the federal marshals were to help in the hunting of the escaped slaves.

4.  The Declaration of Independence was written by Thomas Jefferson and it was signed in 1776 by the Second Continental Congress. It was signed in Philadelphia. The signing of the Declaration of Independence was an important event for launching of the formation of the American identity. It was the first statement, which could establish the rights of people, namely their right for choosing of their government. It was really important, as this was the actual separation of America from Britain, which meant that people, living there, should depend only upon themselves and their new country without any relation to a more powerful country. Written formulating of citizens’ rights was the beginning of the formation of American identity. This signing of the Declaration was something more, than simply gaining freedom from Britain. It was also a great example to all groups, how they should be able to declare their independence. France followed this example, when the country was fighting for its independence also. As soon as the Declaration was signed, all the colonies started to operate as states, the colonists started to unify as one single nation. The Revolution, which followed the signing of the Declaration, supported the country on its way towards independence. At the same time America became a democracy, maintaining some of the basic democratic principles till nowadays. Thus the Declaration of Independence was the document, which proved that all people have their unique identities and have the right for fair representation.


Works cited:

Carnes, M. C., Garraty, J.A. The American Nation: A History of the United States, 2015

The terms offer and acceptance. (2016, May 17). Retrieved from

[Accessed: January 20, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016.

[Accessed: January 20, 2022]

freeessays.club (2016) The terms offer and acceptance [Online].
Available at:

[Accessed: January 20, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: January 20, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: January 20, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: January 20, 2022]

"The terms offer and acceptance." freeessays.club, 17 May 2016

[Accessed: January 20, 2022]
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