The evolution of the Olympic Games from a religious festival that was held at one particular location to a part of political, cultural, and religious life which was originally limited to Greeks and, ultimately, to the activity that is considered to be a part of the global culture is quite interesting. It shows the manner in which the Greeks themselves and the humanity perceived the Games. The interest for the Olympic Games is somewhat recent regarding history, in other words, while there is a wide support for the Games and their popularity is booming, this phenomenon of acceptance of this particular aspect of the Greek culture has been recent. It is interesting to look at the way in which the contemporary Greeks themselves see the Olympic Games. Their attitude is often ambiguous. On the one hand, it is clear that they consider the Games as part of their cultural heritage known all around the world representing their culture positively. On the other hand, the Olympic Games are closely related to the ancient history of the Greeks. The evolution of the Olympic games shows that their meaning changed throughout centuries, and the modern world to fit the historical circumstances.
I have chosen this topic because it is one of the rare examples of an activity that can be traced to the ancient world. Some are fascinated with modernity and overlook the fact that there are some elements of the modern culture that was, in fact, reinvented. In two months, there will be Winter Olympic Games in PyeongChang which makes it quite useful to learn about their history and reflect on their evolution. Personally, I am a great fan of Winter Olympics and ancient history. That is why it is interesting for me to understand how a religious celebration that first occurred in Greece was able to evolve into a global event that features athletes competing in Olympic sports from all over the world. By far, this is something that the ancient Greeks could have never envisioned.
The Ancient Olympic Games
Speculations about the Origins
There are different theories that describe the origin of the Games. There are groups of speculations that one might identify. The first traces the origins of the Games to the mythical times. Some suggest that when Zeus, the supreme God of the Greeks, was born, he was entertained by the Heracles and his brothers. It is important to note that later in myths, this Heracles was replaced with a better-known Heracles the son of Zeus. The idea was that competing pleased the supreme god; so, people believed that they should hold similar events every fifth year, the number of which is probably derived from the number of the brothers. Another myth talks about Pelops, the hero which was praised by the local Olympians. Allegedly, he fell in love with the daughter of the local king and the latter held a race where he could kill Pelops while chasing him. However, Pelops killed the king himself. That is why the first Games were held in the honor of the late king.
While the mythical origin of this event may be interesting to explore, it does not explain the real reason why the people of Ancient Greece organized those Games. It was common for the people in that region to hold funeral games that would commemorate the deceased and unite the living as this was tradition of the Mediterranean people. These games were so popular that they replicated on a large scale. The initiation ceremonies took the form of a competition that would require physical exercises.
The Early Olympics
It is important to point out that from one point of view, the Olympic Games were the most popular event in the Ancient world, but they were not the only event, let alone the only games. The evidence suggests that there also were Nemean, Pythian as well as Isthmian Games that had been organized. Furthermore, the Olympic Games themselves were included in the system of events commonly referred to as Panhellenic Games. In other words, the tradition of organizing such events was not rare; Greeks organized different events so that they could feel the unity of the culture as they were living in small city-states that were competing with each other.
The first several Olympic Games, were very different from one another in terms of sport activities, since they were significantly limited, with running being the only discipline present. Gradually, many disciplines that are currently seen as fundamental, namely wrestling, boxing, jumping, pentathlon, and others were added. One of the main points to include is that the Games were open for a limited number of people to participate. To be exact, in order to qualify, one should be of Greek origin (one might recall the four elements of being Greek expressed by Herodotus: common religion, common blood, common language, and common customs), be a full citizen of a polis, which implies that a person is free, and show one’s abilities beforehand to the judges. This was very important to the Greeks since participating meant being a true Greek, which was a great honor of that time. The participation of women was not allowed; however, they could still win the Games in one particular discipline – chariot racing – as the winner was who owned the chariot. There are examples when some people were given an opportunity to participate in the Games even though they did not quite fit the requirements. One of the best examples is the story of Alexander the Great. He was from Macedonia, a Kingdome that was considered to be populated by the barbarians because they did not speak Greek. This already had implications since the Greeks believed in having city states (polis) not kingdoms and barbarians were frowned upon. Back then, being a true Greek meant that one had to be from a polis since that was how one identified their Greekness and had exclusivity in participating in the games. As a result, Alexander could not be included into the common activities of the civilized people. As a result, it was not acceptable that he takes part in a competition that included the Greeks. However, Alexander appealed to the judges and successfully proved that his ancestors were from Argos which is an Ancient Greek city and that he was a descendant of Heracles, one of the greatest heroes of Greece. There is no doubt that the judges might have been influenced by some other factors as well such as Alexanders’ ability to speak perfect Greek since he was taught by Aristotle; a great Greek philosopher. Nevertheless, they permitted Alexander to participate in the Games. Given the fact that from the very young age he was training to become a warrior, Alexander could win the competition easily which brought him a lot of honor. Now, it is important to examine the kind of sports that were included in the early Olympics because it will show the nature of this activity.
The Sports Activities During the Olympics
There were three major types of activities that form the canon of the Olympic Games. The first is running. It was the only discipline that was featured in every Olympic Games both ancient and the modern ones. The Greeks believed that running was the best way to please the gods when it comes to physical competition since it is an activity that makes a person utilize all resources of the body. That is why there is no surprise in the fact that Achilles, the greatest hero of the Greek, is also described as one of the fastest people in the world. One should note that there were several kinds of running competition present. The first was a short one which was approximately 200 meters; the second one was the long run which amounted to about 7 to 9 kilometers. Finally, there was a short race where the contestants had to run in full armor. Racing was not the only category since over time the Games expanded into different areas.
Wrestling was another category of sport events that formed the canon but had different meanings of it. There was a classic wrestling which, ironically, had slightly different rules from Greco-Roman wrestling as it known today. However, the fundamental rules were simple: one of the wrestlers had to perform three successful throws which were counters when certain parts of the body of the opponent touched the ground. In addition to that, there also was boxing. One of the major differences was that the contestants did not try to hit the bodies, but only the head. Moreover, their hands were wrapped in leather which made each of the successful hits quite devastating. Some speculate that boxing was the most dangerous discipline in the Olympics because the contestants would often have a disfigured face. Another kind of wrestling was pankration. It was a mixture of classic wrestling and boxing.
Finally, there is one more activity that founded the canon of the Olympic Games – pentathlon. As one can easily guess from the very name, this particular competition included five different activities that a single person had to take. There is no concrete evidence as to the way in which an athlete was judged. The first of the five activities was running. As one can clearly see, even in this particular situation it was given preference over other disciplines. The other activities were discus throwing, long jump, and javelin throwing. The last one was always wrestling. One would make no mistake suggesting that pentathlon may have been a model for a basic combat training that the athletes had to participate in. Therefore, it would logical to assume that they would later make good warriors as they had the great physical condition.
The Other Side of the Olympics
In the view of the many people the Olympic Games are inseparably connected to sports. Nevertheless, this is not entirely the case since the Games were a religious festival first of all. Both the mythical origins and the plausible historical aspects assume that the tradition of having games were closely related to the celebration of gods whether at a funeral or as a ceremony. Therefore, many people came to the Olympics not only to watch the competing athletes, but also to participate in different religious ceremonies. Thus, the sacrifice of the animals was an important part of the agenda of the Games.
In addition to that, it is not only the athletes and the spectators that came to the Games, there were numerous artists and musicians who attended them. This is quite understandable since this event was important in the ancient world for a short period of time. Therefore, they were able to promote themselves to a large number of people. What is even more important is that the artists also tried to compete with each other as the athletes did. That is why one might speculate that artistic competition was organized together with the athletic competition. This shows that the Games had a double nature: some activities appealed to the body, some appealed to the mind. Each of them tried to be the best at something. For example, there were poets who would compose the poems that would commemorate the success of the Olympic winners. Not only was it a nobility for the poets to participate and allow them to have such a power but it was a big honor for the athletes to receive a poem commemorated to them.
Olympic Games is a Panhellenic Institution
It was commonly accepted that all city-states would cease participation in the conflicts and agree to a truce that would allow all Greeks to travel to the Games safely and enjoy the event. However, this turned the latter in the arena of the political competition when the politicians would announce new alliances and showcase the honor of their own country or city-state. In addition to that, the Games also contributed to the unification of the Greeks into a framework of city states as they would share some common experience and culture which would allow them to contrast their community with the rest of the world. This event balanced the fact that Greece at the time did not exist as a unified country.
One also should not forget about the fact that Greece would start interacting with other nations, the Olympic Games were seen as the fundamental element of Greek culture, a sort of trademark of the West. In spite of the fact that originally only Greeks were allowed to participate in the Games, later the exception was made for the Romans and representatives of some other nations. It was largely suggested that the mere contemplation of the Games showed the sign of a person being properly intellectually developed: a person living in a civilized society would have liked this event greatly as it appealed to both mind and body. The Games gradually become an important event in the ancient world as they provided some shared experience based on the Greek culture that would allow people to feel united. To an extent, this event was one of the drivers of globalization at the time as it promoted the Greek way of life.
The Fall of the Ancient Olympic Games
It has already been pointed out that there is a rather long period of time in the course of which the Olympic Games was not held. One might suggest that the fall of the Ancient Olympic Games might be seen in the fact that the Romans defeated the Greeks and the culture of the latter started gradually transforming the culture of the former. The major point to mention here is that for a significant period of time the Olympic Games were organized in an atmosphere where everyone shared many characteristics. However, when the Romans started participating in the Games, their meaning of a strictly Greek religious festival diminished. Furthermore, when the Games were used to promote the culture and impress the foreigners and, possibly, encourage them to adopt it, the exclusiveness of the Games was lost completely.
There is a single point of view on when the Games started, but there is a clear indication of when they ended: the date of the first games is agreed on, but scholars differ on the topic when the last games were organized. The majority of the scholars believe that this event was organized as far as 776 Before Common Era. In the ancient times there was a special unit of measure that was related to the Olympic Games. This shows that life of the Ancient Greeks was built around the Games to a certain extent. So, the latter was not only an important social event, but also a way to measure time. This is particularly useful since it allows the scholars to use different references and determine the beginning of this tradition.
The Olympic Games gradually evolved for numerous centuries until the end of the fourth century Common Era. At the time Theodosius the First who was a Roman emperor made Christianity as the state religion of Rome. He could not stand that in his new Christian state there was a pagan feast with a long tradition that date many centuries back. It was a direct threat to the relatively young religion that did not have a strong congregation. As a result, the Olympic Games were banned as incompatible with the state religion. This marked the end of this event for many centuries as in the Medieval times the power of the Christian Church would increase.
The Modern Olympic Games
Revival of the Games
To begin with, it may be important to point out that starting with the seventeenth-century people expressed different degrees of interest towards the notion of Olympic Games. It is suggested that as early as 1612 the British lawyer Rober Dover organized “Cotswold Olimpick Games” which were designed to recreate the spirit of this event. In the Revolutionary France, there was a festival which was referred to as Olympic in the honor of the Greek Olympics. Furthermore, in the second half of the nineteenth century, there was Grand Olympic Festival in Liverpool where amateurs competed in different sports. This is supposed to be the closest event to the actual Olympic Games in the modern history as it included amateurs and promoted the spirit of unity among the members rather than focusing on the competition.
In one way or another, the Olympic Games became popular in different countries, particularly in Greece. In 1821 during the Greek War of Independence, the Games would help this nation restore the former glory and help them remove the yoke of the Ottoman Empire. One should keep in mind that the latter was a Muslim empire which rejected everything that was not associated with Islam. Therefore, the interest towards the revival of the Olympic Games might be explained by the desire to protest the dominance of this Muslim empire. In addition to that the Greeks were eager to celebrate their cultural heritage through reviving the Games. At first it was supported by nothing but interest towards the past. There is no doubt that it would require a considerable amount of investment made which was quite difficult at the time. However, soon there were two people who made this happen.
There are two individuals that contributed to the revival of the Olympic Games. The first is Evangelos Zappas. He was a philanthropist of Greek and Romanian descent. He felt that Greece needed the Olympic Games and that he could use his wealth to help this nation to restore its glory, at least partially. He knew that he could use his fortune to bring positive outcomes for his people and influence the development of the nations as others could not. In 1856, he wrote a letter to the king of Greece at the time, pointing out that he was ready to fund the construction of a stadium that would hold the games. Three years later the first Olympic Games were held in that stadium. They only featured the athletes from Greece and the Ottoman Empire. Nevertheless, the Panathenaic Stadium that he built in Athens would host all future events since that city was the center of everything Greek. It is worth mentioning that the Games of 1896 which are officially recognized as the first international Olympic Games were held in this stadium.
The second person who is inseparably connected to the history of the games in the modern day is Pierre de Coubertin. In 1890, he attended the Olympic Games in Britain and was so impressed by them that he thought that it would be a great idea to hold similar events all over the world. The idea was that different countries would have Olympic committees that would represent them and the consensus regarding the future Games would be found during the Olympic Congress. This was a significant improvement as it brought the idea of the Games to a completely new level. Before de Coubertin, the games were seen as the local event that commemorated the ancient traditions of the Greeks. However, de Coubertin showed that just like the Games brought together different city-states in Ancient Greece, they could be able to bring people from different states today. Another important point that should be mentioned with this regard is that it was de Coubertin who introduced the concept of sportsmanship and encourages the Olympic athletes to be guided by this ideal. This is how he described it: “the important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle, the essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well”. This means that de Coubertin did not want to make yet another festival where professional athletes would show their abilities, he wanted to create an event that was close to the original Olympic Games in terms of the philosophy of participation: both athletes and artists would be included. With this in mind, one might suggest that the modern Olympic Games are dramatically different from what de Coubertin intended them to be as he wanted to encourage people to participate instead of competing for the first prize.
Two Historical Olympic Games in Greece
It is worth mentioning that there are two historical Olympic Games that were held in Greece. The first of them were organized in 1896. They were the first Olympic Games that were held in modernity. It is rather obvious that the first state that would host them was Greece as it was literally the cradle of this event. Past was particularly important for the Greeks then; so, they would be proud to revive this tradition. The important point to mention here is that the first modern Olympic Games were quite different from what they are today as they featured not only fewer contestants, but also fewer disciplines. Nevertheless, it was the event that brought the world together. The first Olympic Games showed that it was possible to revive the old traditions in modernity. It would not be an exaggeration to suggest that this was an important event for the global community of the athletes. For the first time, an event that was modeled after the Ancient Olympic Games did not have a local nature, but included participants from different countries. This showed that the cultural heritage of the Classical Hellenism as the cradle of Western Civilization could have been shared by the rest of the world. Moreover, there was a number of disciplines to compete it. It is true that when one compares the modern Olympic Games and those which were organized in the nineteenth century, the latter does not seem particularly impressive: after all, they featured only a handful of disciplines and a limited number of athletes while the modern Games feature numerous disciplines and a great number of athletes. However, for the people at that time it was a truly an outstanding event that they could not miss.
The second time when the Olympic Games were held in Greece was in 2004. One would make no mistake suggesting that it was important for Greece since they were able to promote their culture to the world in the new way. One might point out that there is a significant gap between the two games in many ways. Moreover, the latter may be regarded as modern Olympic Games since they featured a lot of athletes and disciplines, significantly more than in 1896. In addition to that, the world has already been accustomed to the tradition of the Olympic Games and it was easier for Greece to promote its culture. During the Games this nation was particularly proud of its cultural heritage and was happy to hold this event. The people showed that the Olympics as not something that belongs to the entire world, but rather a part of the Greek culture that has been preserved. This allowed this country to present itself in a completely new light. It is a well-known fact that the economic or the political climate of modern-day Greece is not good. That is why some believe that this country is headed towards a failure as a state since it is not able to revive its economy. In 2004, Greece could boast a rich history and a valuable contribution that it did through organization of the Games. Therefore, the Olympics Games in Athens allowed the country to enjoy the prestige of being original place of this event.
The Development of the Games Today
It has already been mentioned that there is a gap between the modern Olympic Games as they were revived. So, it would be logical to focus on the most significant development. First and most of all, one should note that the Olympic Games today are divided into Summer and Winter Olympics. This is a clear sign of adoption of new values that contributed to the success of the event. Thus, the ancient Greeks would never consider including winter sports simply because the Olympic Games were held in the summer. However, the very existence of the Winter Olympics shows that this pattern was successfully applied to a different set of activities and attracted the public. So, today the Olympic Games are held every four years, but the Summer and the Winter ones alternate; so, this is an event that takes place in one of its forms every two years.
Secondly, one should note that the concept of the Olympic Games has been developed greatly to include other athletes as well. One of the most remarkable signs of development is the Paralympics and the Youth Olympic Games. One should keep in mind that women are currently allowed to participate in the Olympic Games together win men. However, it used to be that there were special competitions for women organized. Speaking of the Paralympics, one should point out that the idea for it emerged after the World War II when there was a large number of veterans who needed to be rehabilitated with the help of sports. In addition to that, the global stability could benefit from an event that would contribute to peace and understanding.
Boycotts and Terrorism
If one was to mention the most striking features of the modern Olympics, one would have to note that there were frequent boycotts and terrorist attacks during them. It is important to note that this is dramatically different from the traditions of Ancient Greece when the Games were respected with a peaceful truce and no one was allowed to violate it. However, in the modern world, many countries tend to boycott the Games in order to show that they are not ready to be friendly to a specific country. There is a rich history of boycotts and all of them were associated with the specific historical events. However, two of the most vivid ones of those of 1980 and 1984 the Games held in Moscow and Los Angeles respectively. The 1980’s was the time when the world experienced the Cold War to its fullest. That is why it was logical that the two rivals would not be ready to agree to peace even symbolically.
One of the most remarkable examples of terrorism during the Olympic Games is the tragic events in Munich. In 1972, the members of the terrorist organization Black September took hostages the Israeli Olympic team. There were nine members in it. Two were killed in order to prove the seriousness of the demands. Unfortunately, the remaining nine also were killed during the rescue operation. In 1996, a bomb was planted in Centennial Olympic Park and detonated during the Olympic Games, claiming the lives of two people and injuring more than a hundred. Some might point out that the Winter Olympic Games of 2002 were heavily influenced by the September attacks of 2001 as the public still could not cope with the shock. These events made it clear that the security measured during the Olympic Games must be extremely high.
Similarities and Differences Between the Ancient and Modern Olympic Games
Finally, it may be useful to come up with the set of similarities and differences between the ancient and the Modern Olympic Games. Speaking of the similarities, one should point out that the modern Games resemble their ancient counterpart in many ways, but on a different scale. As it has been mentioned before, it used to be that the Olympic Games would unite different parts of Greece and end the conflicts at least temporarily. In the modern world, the Games united different countries and help people feel peace. Secondly, the Games were not only an important sports event, but also an important political event. Today, participation and the success of the Olympics is important for building the national identity, particularly in the case of Australia because this country features an ambiguous nature: one the one hand, there are Aboriginal people include, but on the other hand it is associated with the European immigrants. Therefore, one might conclude that at least some of the fundamental features of the Games were preserved.
There are a lot of differences that should be mentioned as well. Other than those which are quite superficial such as the fact that the modern Games are held every two years and feature both summer and winter disciplines or that women and representatives of different nations are allowed to participate, one should mention that the people who participate are not amateurs. It is suggested that this trend started with the Soviet Union sending the amateur athletes who were, in fact, full-time athletes paid by the government to get gold medals. Gradually, the rest of the countries followed the suite. So, today it is a general practice that professional athletes would go to the Olympics and compete for gold. This also resulted in the devaluation of the Olympic principle as everyone competes for the gold rather than valuing the very fact of participation.
Furthermore, the use of performance-enhancing substances, commonly known as doping, is something that is closely associated with the modern Olympics. It is not that the ancient athletes would not use something that would improve their performance. However, today doping tests are an important part of the Olympic Games and significant changes occur because of them. One of the most dramatic ones happened recently when the national team of Russia was not allowed to go to the Olympics because the International Olympic Committee did not recognize the license of the local committee that handles the doping issues as there were allegations that there is a network of doping distribution that is supported by the government
Having examined all the points that were mentioned in the paragraphs above one is able to come to the following conclusion: the Olympic Games have had a long history and have influenced the development of both Ancient Greece, modern Greece, and the entire world. In the ancient times, they served as a tool that allowed the city-states to feel unity and develop Greek personality. It is clear that they were meant to help people to experience some shared events and feel that they represent the Greek culture. At first the number of the disciplines as well the number of the athletes was not big. However, gradually, many disciplines were added. One should also keep in mind that in the ancient times the Games also were an important religious holiday. That is why people were able to be engaged in a number of different activities there, not only performing or watching the performance of others.
The end of the Olympic Games in the ancient times is closely related to the history of the Roma. First of all, it was when Rome conquered Greece that the Greeks were no longer able to be engaged in exclusively Greek games since the foreigners would participate as well. As the time passed and the Greek culture spread, the Games were seen as the tools to showcase the fundamental elements of the Greek civilization. In the future, Rome decided to abandon its old pagan ways and turned to Christianity. The latter was a relatively young religion that could not compete with the centuries-old traditions of the Greeks. That is why Theodosius I banned the games because in his view they were yet another pagan festival. That would ensure that the spread of Christianity would be successful in this country.
As for the modern Olympics, one should mention several aspects as well. First of all, the revival of this ancient tradition is closely linked to the contribution of two people. The first built the first Olympic stadium that was designed to host such events. This attracted the attention of the audience to the possibility of holding such events. The second brought the idea of the Olympic Games to a completely new level: instead of uniting athletes from the same country, he would want representatives of different countries to participate in the games. As a result, the first modern Olympic Games were held in 1896. This was particularly important for Greece since they were able to show their new image of a country and show that they were able to embrace their traditions and celebrate them. In addition to that, in 2004 Olympic Games were held in Greece for the second time. This allowed this country to showcase its culture, reinforce its national identity and remind the world that the Olympic Games is a part of their national heritage.
While one might notice many new aspects in the modern Olympic Games if compared to the ancient ones such as the division into Summer and Winter Olympics or the development of the Games for physically challenged or young athletes, it is clear that there are two major differences. The first is that the participants are no longer strictly amateurs: they are professional athletes. As a result, this made the games more spectacular for the audience and turned them into a big business. Secondly, the modern Olympic Games are closely related to the practice of doping which undermines the very nature of the Games. Therefore, one might conclude that the modern Games may have both positive and negative aspects and they represent an important part of the contemporary culture.
Bingham, Jane. All about the ancient Greek Olympics. London: Raintree, 2015.
De Coubertin, Pierre. The Olympic Games of 1896. Lausanne, 1983: Comite International Olympique.
Hornblower, Simon. Hellenisms: Culture, Identity and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity, ed. Katerina Zacharia. Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum 2008.
Kitroeff, Alexander. Wrestling with the ancients: modern Greek identity and the Olympics. New York, NY: Greekworks.com, 2004.
Kyle, Donald G. Sport, and spectacle in the ancient world. Chichester: Wiley Blackwell, 2016.
Lynch, James. The Ancient Olympiads: 776 BC to 393 AD. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
Mellor, Ronald. Hellenisms: Culture, Identity and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity, ed. Katerina Zacharia. Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum 2008.
Spivey, Nigel. The Ancient Olympics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Katerina. Hellenisms: culture, identity, and ethnicity from antiquity to
modernity. Farnham: Ashgate Variorum, 2016.
 Nigel Spivey, The Ancient Olympics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 81.
 Ibid. 97.
 James Lynch, The Ancient Olympiads: 776 BC to 393 AD (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2015), 282.
 Ibid. 288.
 Ibid. 313.
 Jane Bingham, All about the ancient Greek Olympics (London: Raintree, 2015), 10.
 Hornblower, Simon. Hellenisms: Culture, Identity and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity, ed. Katerina Zacharia. Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum 2008. 57.
 Hornblower, Simon. Hellenisms: Culture, Identity and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity, ed. Katerina Zacharia. Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum 2008. 55.
 Jane Bingham, All about the ancient Greek Olympics (London: Raintree, 2015), 87.
 Nigel Spivey, The Ancient Olympics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 131.
 Donald G. Kyle, Sport and spectacle in the ancient world (Chichester: Wiley Blackwell, 2016), 6.
 Donald G. Kyle, Sport and spectacle in the ancient world (Chichester: Wiley Blackwell, 2016), 21.
 James Lynch, The Ancient Olympiads: 776 BC to 393 AD (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2015), 412.
 Mellor, Ronald. Hellenisms: Culture, Identity and Ethnicity from Antiquity to Modernity, ed. Katerina Zacharia. Aldershot: Ashgate Variorum 2008. 24.
 Nigel Spivey, The Ancient Olympics (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 348.
 Pierre De Coubertin, The Olympic Games of 1896 (Lausanne, 1983: Comite International Olympique), 157.
 Ibid., 248.
 Katerina Zacharia, Hellenisms: culture, identity, and ethnicity from antiquity to modernity (Farnham: Ashgate Variorum, 2016), 297.
 Alexander Kitroeff, Wrestling with the ancients: modern Greek identity and the Olympics (New York, NY: Greekworks.com, 2004), 33.
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